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an exploration in the new

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SXSW2015 day 5; smart human failures

The closing day. I missed the first session slot and my first session at 11am was sold out session. After changing venue I ended up in a session on the role of our new tech in spiritual thinking, remembering our diseased.
The topic went a bit broader on the function collected data plays and how to value this. Not real new concepts if you followed series like Black Mirror. One question from the audience triggered an interesting thinking: is our brain the center of our universe or is it just the embassy of our digestive system. It made me think how this relates to systems of sensors and AI. The sensors can have a much more important role.

Funny enough it connected nicely to the panel on the smart home I attended afterwards. One of the points there is how we need to speak of a conscious home more than a smart home. The sensors are getting smarter but need to open up to make valuable combinations possible. Philips is investing in a open platform and Nest is active in connecting other services to there own, so there is hope. Still the question remains how much smartness we can handle in our personal space. Something that was present in earlier talks too. See also the tweets on Storify.

Astro Teller -a keynote speaker, leading GoogleX laboratory developing moonshots- showed us how experiment and smart failure is key for (Google’s) innovation. The role of design is not covered well in my opinion though. And failure should not be a self for-filling prophecy. Failure could however been build in as part of the market product in the form of adapting to the user and usage.

Bruce Sterling wrapped up SXSW as tradition with some good points to think about. It sums up this years SXSW for me. The marriage between the human and tech will lead to new types of products that remain adapting to the user. Looks like that the ‘impulse shaped services’ can now become reality. The coming week I will process all the impressions with other visions and share this with you on March 24.

SXSW2015 day 4; tech as material

Day 4 already. The Monday is always a bit different. Hard to pinpoint why, maybe because you feel you have passed half of the conference. Or because it seems a bit more quiet because some of the Americans have to go back to work after the weekend. I did not have to stand in line for the sessions I attended.

I had a day with some different types of talks and topics. Starting with a wearable/3D printing/new material, to biomaterials, via surveillance and trust, to sharing service Lyft, to sensorbased storytelling and finally on new models of the Internet.

The first panel was organised by the Carnegie Mellon University and showed four projects on expressive interactive interfaces. On flexible 3D printed clothes. And another on expressive and learning light. A plaster 3D printer was interesting for the way it followed and learned from human movements. The fourth showed two examples on 3D mapping of body shape and movement and the translation to materials. Tactum and Reverb projects, see the site of Madlab.

The merge of technology and human went a step further in the talk of Robert Langer. He showed how far we are by making implantable devices that fight diseases. In his talk he told about the long road it takes from research to approval and treatment. The developments are going rapidly though now and it has become a 3rd approach to treat cancer. See my photos in the Storify with some details.

The interesting thing on the session on surveillance was the pannelist that was a former NSA director, Stewart Baker. It delivers definitely good discussions on the role of government versus peoples literacy.
Privacy was discussed and how it has almost always been tied to your ability to pay. And how neutral is an algorithm? Every algorithm is editorial.
Trust was the key point of discussion, trust in governments. But it subject was to big for a good panel discussion.
Stewart Baker: The reason Silicon Valley is less sensitive to privacy is because they’re already living in the future.

One of the future routes was laid out in the last session on the ‘end of the internet’. Not literally, but it discussed the new forms of internet infrastructure with mesh networks between mobile phones. This will be especially interesting in developing countries, but it could also grow into the extra layer to the private social networks we all are using with our Whatsapp groups.

You could imagine that services like Uber and Lyft create their own mesh networks and provide the internet connection for clients as extra product. Something that was not discussed by the founder of Lyft – the American only Uber-x competitor. A smart guy that understands that the world is changing if our mobility changed. We use lots of land and energy to mobility, in LA it is half of the city space.

A panel on storytelling engines for smart environments learned us that those engines are more methods. The work from Meghan Athavale from Lumo Play showed how much playful design and storytelling are linked.

Making the story first is crucial for developing a model for the new sensor-based world, the technology is an augmentation on the real world as Lance Weiler said. Which is true but we saw earlier how those two concepts ‘human’ and ‘tech’ are integrating. Even in the physical space. Making stories and let people experience them is also a way to learn on the consequences. We need to have insight in the decisions the AI makes for us.

It seems that we are moving very fast to marriage of tech and human interactions, but the interfaces for understanding both sides are crucial to move ahead.

SXSW Day 3; a thin line between smart and smart-ass

On day 3 the themes of wearables, mixing real and digital, AI and new interactions were present again.

I started the day with a panel on fashion technology. A good mix of panellists covered things as the characteristics of materials and the role of fashion with smart garments. Topics as storing data in the garment, making clothes that adapt to the outside temperature, and generating it’s own energy by your movement. The good thing was that also the manufacturing was covered and topics as stimulating hormones fabrics came by. New concepts as mushrooms that become a organic material that can grow into the right form. And of course 3D printing in clothes, were our Dutch designer Iris van Herpen was mentioned as haute couture inspiration.

One of the panellist -Billy Whitehouse- wore here navigation jacket that has navigation signals by haptic feedback. It is important to have others than fashion designer involved. Industrial designers have less fear for fashion rules.

New interfaces for the real-digital world were touched in a presentation on speech interaction. Some solid facts on how to design for speech dialogs. On ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition), NLU (Natural Language Understanding) and appropriate dialog response.
The talk did not make the specific connection to Internet of Things, but gave good design considerations for designing for speech

  • understanding expectations
  • leverage the strenghts of speech
  • partner with other modalities (screens, gestures)
  • frame the scope
  • support what is natural
  • provide conversational feedback
  • identify ‘errors’ as opportunities
  • consistency for a point of view. Cross device.

Overall: provide conversational feedback. Speech systems should follow our conversational norms. Indentify errors as opportunities.

Later I attended a session on the Myo, the new arm device that makes gesture control possible. Interesting device that he live demoed by using it as presenter remote for his Prezi. It is a smart device and he made clear how much tuning was necessary to get the musle reading right. I think it is most interesting when you have an open system you can calibrate yourself, and I think that is possible.
His trends: 1. Interfaces as next major advance computing, 2. next generation interface blur the lines humans & computers and 3. it will not be a cyborgs future.

The last talk I like to mention is the one of Molly Steenson. The room was quite empty. Apparently is the connection smart cities and architecture is not that hot. She had a solid story on the thin line between being smart and smart-ass in context of the city. With some good references to earlier history, especially the work of Cedric Price and his generator city project. Google seems to make this now for real at is new campus. See some of the slides in the Storify of the day.

The thin line is definitely important for more than the smart-city concept. The last presentation I saw (by accident) on future fashion shopping concepts how a techno focus can pass the line.

SxSW2015 day 2; start with the thing

Day 2 of this years South by started with a panel on advanced mobility. 9.30am, I made it on time after publishing the first wrap up of this SxSW…

The first panel was held by several people from the University of Michigan and that results in some data rich slides on the way cars are mapping the world and the need that the world is mapped as preparation.
The panelist of GM indicates that it was for them a whole new look on mobility. Looking for the new business models. A question from the audience however made clear this panel and the GM representative in particular only thought of new ways cars will work and can be sold. A holistic view on mobility was not present and that made the panel more on advanced cars than on advanced mobility.
Some insights from that point of view: security is necessary to get the cars excepted. Not only driving security but also data security.
An interesting questing that was mentioned is the interface with driving. That will change and you can think of new concepts, or just get it all out as Google did.
All in all an interesting topic with a bit weak panel.

Second panel showed that a panel can work. It needs a couple of interesting panellist but above all a journalist that really dive into the subject. The panel was on wearables, as many are during South-By this year. It touched the fashion aspect a lot. One of the panellist was the founder of Ringly, the smart vibrating ring.
The first defined a lot of the discussion. Google Glass as inspiration where to go with a wearable. Not put tech in front but put the use in front.  And think about the cultural context, it should fit in. The utility on itself is not the main challenge, the wearability in all its aspects is.

One of the panellists (named David Austin) did work for 17 years at Apple and had a lot of little insights in the choices there. On pricing for instance. Apple don’t think about the cost price, it judges the product on its value. In the end it only counts what the consumer want to pay. The want prize.
There are a lot of panels on wearables and later the day I followed another on wearables and tech converge. Just like the other the topic of fashionable devices and the move from single purpose device (smartphone) to single function device (wearable) were important topics. The data exchange between wearables was discussed. We will see the first start-ups working on bringing the data together and create meaning. Later wearable companies will move to open standards.

With the wearables the human machine connections is interesting too. We saw interesting thoughts on that on day 1, so I entered a presentation on Human vs Machine, A Cognitive Revolution. The presenter was a bit too much focused on the technology push, but it was interesting to experience he also opts in for world where man and machine work together. The real implications of that world were not touched tough.

This was the first talk that I visited with an RSVP, a new method to fight the huge lines that makes SxSW in a chaotic experience. The Americans are mastering the art of cueing up, that was clear also this day, with a lot of people managing the right set up and dividing it into RSVP, waiting lists and normal lines. A kind of real life play…

Best talk of the day was of a London based designer of internet of things products and services, Ross Atkin. His statement was that you should start with the things, not with the internet. And before starting with the thing it should be clear what the use case was. He sees a lot of parties that are try to dig the gold of the IoT platform lock-in, but it is important to come up with valuable ideas. His three steps: identify the use case and do design research, design the service and validate, user test and iterate.
He had some interesting examples of his work that made sense. And he had very nice looking slides (check my Storify, making a comic book of his presentation. A tool he all uses as prototype to validate the concepts.

So also on the second day the main topics were around the relation between human and the technology. And it seems the best strategy to start by thinking on the thing you want to solve.

SxSW2015 day 1; high-tech and high-touch

This year I am again in Austin for SxSW (South by South West, or South by as locals say), I’m visiting the interactive conference, just like I did in 2011 and 2013. The conference is one of the biggest in the world (probable the biggest) with about 32.798 attendees. There are over a 1000 sessions in 5 days. The topics are very divers, but still you are certain that you will miss more that you can see. The experience and atmosphere is however unique, you feel that the whole world of internet is gathering in this little town in Texas.

The Friday used to be a quite start with just a couple of sessions in the afternoon. This year however it is almost a full day of sessions, starting at 11 in the morning.

For the first time I rented a bike (in advance, that is the only way) which is very convenient. The Uber driver that took me to the rental shop got me direct in the right mode telling how he drove 15 hours from Tennessee just to be an Uber driver for the week.

The first session I attended can be linked to that. Design for trust was the topic and this is even more important with all the services like Uber and Airbnb. The presenter Michael Boeke from a new company Synap mentioned Uber as a bad example and a good one. Good for the rating system of drivers and creating transparency. And bad for the fact that they are inconsistent in the storytelling and acting by the management. This consistency is one of the main drivers of trust he said, contributing to the factor of integrity. Control and transparency are the others.
The talk was nice but did not surprise. He lacked to go a step deeper in the factor of ‘trust elasticity’ as I like to call it. The threshold of our accepting of distrust when we have enough incentives.

On SxSW I like to find the more obscure talks too. This can be surprising, or it can be disappointing. The talk of Alex Wright did not live up to the expectations of sketching out a different thinking model for our connected world looking to the forgotten history of a Belgian skolar. He did the history part well with lot of nice looking old images of early systems, but did not translate to a view on the now. Maybe something for later.

After the lunch break at the official food court I did see two talks that were more related than expected at forehand. I try not to go to the big keynotes as a rule because those are covered extensively by others and also recorded for later viewing. I did end up by Daniel Pink however in the big room. I never saw him presenting before and the field of his work is highly related  to our initiatives around behavioral design. He did a bunch of well known research (for me) and packed in 7 big ideas. Watch his Crowd Control series on National Geographic.

  1. use fear the right way: to focus attention
  2. questions work a bit more engaging than statements
  3. make them rhyme
  4. social proof
  5. give people an off-ramp
  6. put a face on it
  7. try stuff, don’t take these rules for granted

The best part of his talk is the power he presented with. It was a great show.

More interesting though was the way it connected to the last speaker of the day; Cynthia Breazeal of MIT and startup Jibo. She researches the personal robot and did so by studying what makes a robot personal. So a lot of the behavioral things she experiments are linked to the one of pink.
She used packed slides with data and great movies of experiments with robots and children. I put some pictures here later, you can check the Storify. The main insight is that the personality of a robot is not a human personality, but has it’s own characteristics in an in between space between relations between human to humans and human to pets. The startup Jibo is definitely something to track, see if here research will lead to a practical to use personal assistent.

That wrapped up day 1, with the last talk the most insightful. Will go for more research driven talks the rest of the conference I hope.

This is the first of my daily wrap-ups of 2015 SxSW conference in Austin. Follow the tag sxsw2015 to find them all. 

The quality of Pebble

On Adformatie I wrote this short post on how well the new Pebble is. Because of it’s focus. It is a nice implemtation of the model of notifaction I developed from our Glass experiende too.

The post is in Dutch.

Deze week introduceerde Pebble zijn antwoord op de komende Apple Watch. Beter design en vooral een interessante upgrade van het gebruiksconcept. 

Het duurt niet lang meer of de Apple Watch zal de markt van smartwatches gaan overspoelen, 9 maart weten we de details. En als de voortekenen niet bedriegen zal het de bakens verzetten, hoewel er ook een typische Apple-productstrategie te verwachten is, kleine stapjes uitrollen van functionaliteit met een beperkte eerste versie.

Ondertussen komen nieuwe modellen binnen het Android Wear platform op de markt, momenteel gepresenteerd tijdens de Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. Huawei bijvoorbeeld introduceerde een ronde smartwatch in lijn van de Moto360. Ik heb ‘m niet geprobeerd nog uiteraard, maar het besturingsysteem Android Wear ken ik van de Moto360 en daar is nog wel wat op af te dingen. 

Interessant is de nieuwe Pebble die deze week via een slimme marketingcampagne het licht zag. Net als de eerste versie was de basis een Kickstarter-campagne en al snel werden alle records verbroken. Interessant is om te kijken naar de veranderingen in het besturingssysteem. Als een van de eerste smartwatch leveranciers is er veel ervaring. En de kracht van Pebble was altijd de beperking. Een smartwatch moet je niet proberen vol te stoppen met apps, het is een notificatiemachine en kan nuttig zijn met hele gerichte monofunctie apps. Zoals Eric Migicovsky van Pebble zegt: je zet geen apps op je Pebble, maar functies.

De nieuwe Pebble Time (dat is de naam) heeft een ander schermformaat en er is kleur toegevoegd. De beleving is daarmee behoorlijk verbeterd, ook de animaties zien er goed uit, al zullen ze niet kunnen tippen aan de scherpe hoge resolutie schermen van Apple en Android. Maar het is dan ook e-paper en heeft als groot voordeel dat het batterijleven tot een week is. Mijn Moto360 haalt het eind van de dag niet eens soms, wat met een horloge best lastig is.

Het goede van de nieuwe Pebble is de focus op het begrip tijd als interactiemetafoor. Dat past natuurlijk perfect bij een horloge, maar ook bij een wearable. Het timeline-principe als basisinteractie was een sterke eigenschap van de Google Glass, Pebble heeft het nu verder versimpeld en tot de core teruggebracht passend bij een watch.

Pebble Timeline

Pebble Timeline met blik in toekomst en verleden.


Ondertussen is de introductiecampagne zeer succesvol. Op Kickstarter staat de teller op bijna 12 miljoen. Daarmee bewijst Pebble en passant dat Kickstarter een interessante marketingstrategie kan zijn. Met de relatief lage prijs zal Pebble zeker enige tijd stand houden naast de Apple en Android watches.

The haptic revolution of a watch

Today the Apple Watch was announced. It will not make it to the market until next January probably to give app developers chance to develop their apps and have a relevant watch experience from the start. And maybe also for other reasons we do not know.

In the media the reactions vary. Of course the stunning looks of the device and the sharp graphics are applauded. But on the other hand the features are criticised. Is this the leapfrogging device we were expecting?

I have to say, my first reaction when the movie was played was also a bit disappointed. Not for the lack of functions, I really don’t think that is an issue at all. I was however expecting a bit more a new type of product and not the pure watch. Still I could have known, Apple did not invent a smartphone or a tablet but improved the dna of it from the outside in. The real disruption is in the way the device works, the way it feels, the way we will use it and integrate it in our lives. And in that sense I think there is a true breakthrough innovation: the haptic touch.

I am wearing a Pebble for a year now and next to the real value of the concept of a notification device on my wrist, the most interesting part for me is the resonating interface. We are really able to distinguish different information signals by the resonation rhythm.

Next to that Apple introduced forced touch and heartbeat communication. Both are part of a whole new interface language I think, that brings the next level of intimate interactions into our digital devices. In the presentation some of these interactions are hinted but I expect this is just the start of a sixth sense, a way we will be able to make contact with the digital cloud around us, and with others.

Together with Digital Life Center, Labs is running a research project to look into the way trembling interfaces can be used to connect to digital coaches and to touch on distance. I think the ecosystem Apple created by sensor, display and SDK HealthKit can be more revolutionizing than any other functions that are introduced or did not been introduced. Looking forward to dive into this beyond touch interactions and develop for real intuitive use, for interfacing without a screen.

Continuity, the first step to a notifaction based OS

A new OS model emerged, thinking on the consequences of the Google Glass interface model and the consequences on a more deeper level for the way user experience will work in the future, and services will function on our mobile and wearable devices.

I sketched it for the first time for a presentation at the CrossMediaCafe February 4 this year: the app model is replaced by a system where the notifications-layer become the linking pin between instances of the service you are subscribed to. The context of use both in knowledge as in sensing is defining what is relevant for the moment.

I predicted this would be the playing field of the next generation OS’s of Google and Apple. I made a typo and call it the notifaction space, something that works remarkable well though.

Now we have seen the first of it in iOS8 and OSX Yosemity at the WWDC last Monday. The talk was packed with interesting new stuff, from appearance to complete new program models including a disruption in the platform with Swift and Extensions. And also some huge steps in connecting the tangible world to our digital reality with Healthkit and Homekit, something to go in deeper another time.

The solution for the notifaction space from Apple is called Continuity. OSX and iOS are not only looking more and more the same, the experiences are really merging now. And more interesting, the presence of devices in relation to each other is noticed and have added intelligent behavior. Fluent experiences, discreet behavior, all solved with Continuity.

Combined with the catching up in interactivity in the notifications with direct interactions via Spotlight features shows how this layer is indeed the center of our control room of the digital life. I expect even more to come as app-maker will start to use it and we grew into a trigger based ad-hoc service experience. Exciting times.

Lessons on wearables from Berlin

[Published on in Dutch]

Afgelopen week was ik op twee conferenties in Berlijn. De eerste was een nieuwe over het internet of things: Thingscon. Een zeer goede conferentie met hoog niveau sprekers en publiek. De tweede was NEXT Berlin. Daar was ik voor de tweede keer (vorige keer in 2012), dit keer op uitnodiging om als bezitter van een Glass bij nog erg summiere Glass penetratie in Duitsland het publiek kennis te laten maken.

De wearables waren in verschillende vormen goed vertegenwoordigd op beide conferentie. Bij Thingscon werd veel nadruk gelegd op het maken van dingen, iets dat voor een mensen die normaal over bits nadenken nog al eens weerbarstig kan zijn. “There is no China button”.  Nu we van corporate via personal computing nu naar ambient computing zijn gegaan gaat het niet meer om sneller maar om kleiner en minder energiegebruik, zoals de Noor Adam Scheuring zei.

Olivier Mével, de maker van Nabaztag (later Karotz), het Wifikonijn dat 200 duizend stuks verkocht, zoekt het nu vooral in dingen die onszelf quantificeren, en remote controls van alles.
Zoals ook Matt Biddulph aangaf op zoek te zijn naar de randen en vooral te focussen op het ecosysteem, niet op de node.

Die nodes zijn nog steeds de mensen betoogde Alasdair Allan. Wij verbinden nu nog de verschillende connected devices. Bij NEXT Berlin gaf Cedric Hutchings van Withings een mooi voorbeeld hoe hier gebruik van te maken. Ze proberen bestaand gedrag te ondersteunen met connected devices, zoals de weegschaal. Deze data wordt vervolgens persoonlijke gezondheidsdata waar omheen nieuwe producten worden gemaakt.

Interessant zijn de principes van discretie in design zoals de Finse designer Sami Niemelä het verwoordde. Mobile first = behaviour first, ontwerp vanuit de human factors de service, daarna de software en de hardware als laatste. Brady Forrest van investeerder Highway1 gaf het eerder ook aan: if the software breaks, the product breaks.
We maken daarbij steeds meer adaptieve producten die pas af zijn door het gebruik betoogde Matt Webb van BERG.

Het meten zelf is interessanter dan de data die we meten. Usman Haque hield een vlammend pleidooi als afsluiter van Thingscon om niet te focussen op de optimalisatie van persoonlijke dingen, maar op de mogelijkheden die de connected things hebben om samen diensten op te zetten met meer waarde. Wil niet alles simpel maken. Making meaning is making mess.

Christian Holm zei het ook bij NEXT Berlin. Serendipity maakt het leven mooi. Omarm de onzekerheid, neem dat mee in het design van de wearables.

In het zelfde panel gaf Priya Prakash terecht aan dat de notificaties nog niet werken. Daar ligt voor wearables de werkelijke uitdaging. Waar ik het helemaal mee eens ben. Mensen zijn daarin de sensors die de notificaties moeten sturen. Mooi gezegd. Het werd onderstreept met de slechte manier waarop de eigen iBeacon conferentie-implementatie werkte, onterechte en 10dubbele notificaties als je op de verkeerde plek stond. We zijn daar nog maar net gestart…

FutureEverything thinking on the box

This year I attended the FutureEverything conference for the second time. The last time was two or three years ago. A small conference, but with high quality content. And a good atmosphere too. This time it was scaled up a bit with big support of the city municipality, what makes it into a conference with a few side tracks and bit more local focus. Still the quality of speakers was far above average again.
It is some weeks ago now but I will give some reflections (instead of reporting in detail).

The kick-off by Mike Bracken and Russell Davies talking on GDS was nice. The first time I saw Russell in such formal talk, but still very smart and the achievements of GDS are of course impressive. Putting the delivery before the talking is very productive. The use some straight forward principles like: Work on stuff that matters. Do the hard stuff first. Make it open. Show the thing. Also show the analytics. Fixing the basics
They believe that the future of government is not a policy paper. It will emerge from the places where government is made. GAAN Government as a network. Not centralised, Not localised, But networked.

The rest of the day a lot of talks refer to different kind of utopias in the main room. The minimal viable utopia as Greenfield it puts.

The best talks I followed in the fireside chat room. James Bridle is still one of my favourite thinkers and artists. Always shifting our thinking with pieces of real working art. He talked on his drone shadows of course and on the project that was in town (but I missed); the Spaulder. Looking for the physical embodiments of the internet makes it interesting to look reversed too: digital embodiment of the real. The next day he talked a bit more on the surveillance topic in the main room. This was a very good panel of speakers, with next to James a talk by Eleanor Saitta, and Adam Harvey. James started with questions on the data ownership of driving plate data captured by British government.

It addresses how the current developments in surveillance shifts from an understanding of the world to an understanding of the person. Adam Harvey is the artist who made the camouflage like face paintings to counter face recognition. “We can interfere with observation by modifying our simulation. We exist in many environments and may moments in the future”. In that sense is the work of Tom Armitage creating a ghost presence of himself in another city a very practical implementation of the concept. Combining these would be very interesting.

Also the chat with Adam Greenfield was good. Long time I saw him present. His new piece as anti-smart city thinking was the main topic. From smart to networked city as an approach. The example to go out through the city in a ‘Walkshop’ and be aware of all the connected artefacts.

The second day was talking on the box as one speaker quoted.
A nice metaphor to take responsibility again instead of making just new new stuff. On of the boxes is our relation to tech and the evolution in that. Koert van Mensvoort introduced a model that behaves like the Maslow pyramid, upper levels are the next stages in evolution. For tech he found the steps: envisioned > operational > applied > accepted > vital > invisible > naturalised

Especially in the afternoon some great speakers told about projects. Like Tom Armitage on Hello Lamppost, and Dan Williams on several robotic encounters.
The talk of Alexandra Deschamp-Desino on gonzo products is definitely something to watch if you are active in the field of creating connected products, lets call them new products, like we call media new media in the era of change. Gonzo products are a need breed: a product designed for the crowdfunding reality. Low goal, lean, 6 months pivots.
Tom Armitage talked on Hello Lamppost and showed us how you make a city really playable. It is not a playable city if not everyone is allowed to play. Therefor they used low entry technology (SMS). Networks go beyond network cables. We should create service avatars. Objects as manifests of services. Made personal. Products can break from the services. Wellknown example is the Nabaztag connected rabbit.

Looking back on the conference it is hard to pinpoint one overall story. I like the box as a metaphor. Also I got the feeling that there is a kind of gap emerging between a non-developing practice of open data in cities and new realities of automated contexts we need to master.


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